I choose to write about late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in art.There were three revolutions. They were the Industrial Revolution (1760), the American Revolution (1716), and the French Revolution (1789). The Industrial Revolution made a huge change in the way that people lived since the Neolithic agricultural revolution (that was ten thousand years earlier).Much change and technological changes have happened at a fast pace since thanks to the Industrial Revolution. The late Eighteenth century has been called the Enlightenment (or the age of Reason).
In the late eighteenth century artists expressed and encouraged changes in technology, mixing of peoples and cultures. In the beginning of the French Revolution (1789) the daily luxuries life of the people of France suddenly ended which disrupted and transformed the people’s lives. This intern made the social structure and the values transform. This made peoples tastes in art change. Jacques Louis David thought / felt that the arts should “serve a political purpose in a of social and government reform.” He rejected the current style of art called Rococo. He used an austere style called Neoclassicism. Neoclassicism refers to the emulation of classical Greek and Roman Art. In his oil on canvas painting called “Oath of the Dorati” (1784). Jacques Louis David Neoclassicism style is shown by the rational geometric structure. The paintings background truly resembles a real stage set.
Very wrong but believed to be true views/feelings/thoughts were also expressed in art of that time as well. In the painting “Oath of the Horatii” by David shows that women were “unfit” for public life. At that time women were excluded from most professions as well as the art world/ profession. Much like today as women are really not accepted in the construction world and should be (if they can do the work). Angelica Kauffmann is a prime example of women being able to do the work (art work) as seen in her oil on canvas painting entitled “Cornelia pointing to her children as her treasures” (1785). Her painting is proof to the fact that women can do anything that a man can do if they just try and believe in themselves. In this chapter there is another example of neoclassical art. This time it is in architecture. Thomas Jefferson’s design for his home (Monticello) was done in the neoclassical style. It was done in the Neoclassical American architecture style (also known as Federal Style). This style is heavily seen in Washington D.C.’s architecture.
Romanticism is an opposite reaction to the Enlightenment (the power of reason). Romanticism is an emotional expression in Europe (from perhaps 1825 to 1850). Romanticism is an attitude that made way for and invited a multitude of styles. It is formed on the core beliefs that emotion and imagination are more important that reason. My favorite quote referring to Romanticism is that “nature is less corrupt than civilization” and that “human beings are essentially good.” Romantics struggle for human liberty. Which I believe is a good and fair cause. The style of romanticism is the total opposite of the fixation on classical forms. The term romanticism reflects the emphasis on feeling over fact. I think that that is a truly interesting way of thinking. Because it is easy to get caught up in the norm of things rather than looking at the beauty and uniqueness around our daily lives. I feel that a good example of romanticism is the oil on canvas painting called “Blue hole little Miami river” (1851). It was painted in the nineteenth century in America by Roberts Duncanson .He was one of the first African American artists. This painting shows exact realistic qualities and great attention to detail. This to me represents Romanticism style in the fact that it shows the struggle for human liberty by an African American making it in art when many were denied the opportunity.
Photography. Delacroix believed that photography was possibly to be of a wonderful/great benefit to artists and their art. Fe’lix Tournachon (Nadar) believed that photography was simply a mechanical process and that the photographer had to be smart and be creative in order to get a worthwhile work of art with a camera. An example of one of his photographs is called Sara Bernhart (taken in1855). Many different classes people wanted their portraits taken by Nadar. Such as the most notable artists, writers, accretes, and intellectuals.
Realism as a style of art and literature that shows plain existence without the use of idealism, exoticism, or nostalgia. Realism can be interpreted by people in a shown rejection of romantic and neoclassical art “formulas.” A great example of this is entitled “The stone brakers (1849) oil on canvas by Gustave Courber. It shows “ordinary” road workers in a new light (by not just painting things that people would accept as “beautiful”). He rather did the opposite by painting real things as they were actually seen in nature. He was even one of the first artists to finish his artworks outdoors rather than indoors using thus using inspiration from the outdoors to emulate through his paintings. Most other artists used to work from memory in a studio or just use reference materials from the outdoors like rocks and plants/flowers.
Impressionism was created by artists opposing academic doctrines and romantic ideals. They wanted to express the contempory life. Impressionism is thought to be “what the eye actually sees rather than what the mind knows.” Impressionists were misunderstood by their public many of the artists made very little or no money in their early years. This is because they rebelled against accepted styles. They did this by use artificial poses that the academy wanted them to use. Such an example of this rejection of the Academy’s rules is the oil on canvas painting entitled “The Boating Party” by Mary Cassaties. She used different colors for the man and different colors for the woman and child. This was to show that the woman was of a higher class than the man. This also shows that the woman was paying the man to take her on a boat ride. She also used “sweeping curves and almost flat shapes” according to this chapter.
Lastly I will discussed the art style of the post-impressionist period (painting starting about 1885). Painters that were post-impressionist did not share any one kind of style, but they did build on Impressionism. Although that some people felt that Impressionism didn’t really allow an artist to have his or her own personal expression or religious beliefs. One of my favorite paintings falls under the category of Impressionism and is an oil on canvas painting called “The Sower” by Vincent Van Gogh. My favorite quote about his paintings is “with Vincent Van Gogh late nineteenth century painting moved from an outer impression of what the eye sees to an inner expression of what the heart feels and the mind knows.” I do feel that anyone can do art if it is first in their heart and then in their mind. Art is a very fun way of expressing your feelings and what you know. It is also a way of expressing your insights/views.
Written By: Gutter Chic
Sources: Preble's Artforms
Source type: Text book